As temperatures rise in the 90’s, one might speculate that the Earth is closer to the Sun than during the winter, but vice versa.

The Earth is on July 4, 2022, in Aferion, which is in the farthest circular orbit from the Sun. On January 4, the perihelion will be close to 3.1 million miles.

Aphelion affects our weather, but that’s not what you might think.

The amount of energy that the earth receives from the sun changes by only about 3.5% annually. During the winter, temperatures are cooler as the sun’s rays reach us at more angles and spread their energy over a wider area. When the sun is above, the energy is more concentrated and raises the temperature,

These are the images from the GOES-16 meteorological satellite that WRAL’s stormy weather team uses to compile their daily forecasts, which is easy to see from the Sun’s point of view.

The longer the distance, the slower the Earth’s movement around the Sun during this period is about 1000 m / s (2237 mph) compared to the perihelion in January. This affects the length of the season. Spring and summer last about 93 days, and autumn and winter about 89 days.

Perigee of another planet

Astronomers describe the shape of the orbit as the eccentricity, a number between 0 and 1. Zero is a perfect circle, and unless its number reaches 1 (parabola), the planet, moon, or anything else stays in orbit.

The Earth’s eccentricity is 0.017 and Venus is the most circular at 0.007. The eccentricity of Mars is 0.094, which has a great influence on the season. Summer on Mars is 25 days longer than winter, and spring is 52 days longer than autumn.

Martian year season when the red planet orbits the sun

Pluto is the winner with an eccentricity of 0.244. Its orbit is more elliptical than it was actually closer to the Sun than Neptune between 1979 and 1999.

So summer in Australia is hotter, isn’t it?

Even the slightest increase in solar energy that the Earth receives around the perisphere will create a slightly warmer summer in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite is true here as well.

The Northern Hemisphere has much more sea than the land south of the equator, so it gets about 3.5ºF warmer annually (80% / 20% water / land here in the Northern Hemisphere). This is easier to see if you look at the earth from the poles.

Comparison of land in the northern and southern hemispheres

Water requires considerably more energy to raise its temperature than land. Think about it the next time you step on the hot sand from a cool surf on the beach.


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